Managing Audacity Projects
From Audacity Development Manual
- Peter 12Jan16: I'm not sure that this page is the right one to go into this level of detail. As you point out Gale, the only folk who really need to know abaout this are those trying to manually reconstruct broken projects - so would probably sit better on the recovery pages.
- Gale 13Jan16: I don't think it fits at all with the current content of Recovering crashes manually because that is for people with no AUP (or AUTOSAVE) file. This case is about getting a _data folder's contents back into the order specified in an existing AUP (or AUTOSAVE) file. So it's a different type of recovery and (I thought) useful detail that does belong here. If it doesn't belong here then it needs to be a new section in Recovering crashes manually but then that makes that page less focused.
- Audacity projects have a top-level AUP file and a related folder containing the sound files (the audio data). The AUP is not a sound file, it is merely a list of instructions that tell Audacity how to construct the project from the sound files in the folder. Audacity projects can only be used by Audacity.
- To make an audio file (such as WAV or MP3) for playing on your music player, or for use in other programs, use one of the Export Audio commands.
- Structure of an Audacity project
- Opening an Audacity Project
- Project Dependencies
- Saving an Audacity Project
- Exporting audio files
- Moving or sending an Audacity project
- Backing up Audacity projects
- Deleting an Audacity project
- Autosave and Recovery
- Disk space usage
Structure of an Audacity project
The Audacity Project Format stores all Audacity tracks and clips, labels, amplitude envelope points, gain and pan data, together with other project data. The audio can be a recording, imported files, generated audio or a mixture of any of those. Projects are a convenient way to save your extended multi-track piece and come back to it later exactly as you left off.
The structure of a saved Audacity project is:
- An AUP project file - the name of the project followed by ".aup", for example "my_song.aup"
- A _data folder with the same project name and in the same folder as the .aup file, for example "my_song_data"
- Within that _data folder, a sub-folder structure with lots of little AU files which are individual segments of the audio data.
- Note that default behavior on Windows and Mac is to hide certain file extensions ; if this applies, the .aup file will only appear as "my_song" in the computer. On Windows, the .aup extension will be hidden if Audacity was installed from the .exe installer and "Hide file extensions for known file types" remains checked in Windows Explorer. You can unhide extensions on Windows by following these instructions.
The project file describes how Audacity links these AU files together to make up the clips and tracks in the project; it also contains gain, pan and envelope information, data to manage the waveform display and carries links to any dependent audio files being read directly from their source location.
The AUP file is in XML format and can be opened in a text editor if required. The AU files are stored in a lossless, uncompressed format. Their default size is 1 MB or less. This Audacity Project Format is designed to make editing audio faster in Audacity. By updating individual AU files during editing, Audacity can change audio or move it around in the project without copying large quantities of data from one place to another.
- When importing an uncompressed audio file with the "Read uncompressed file directly from the original (faster)" option checked in Import / Export Preferences never move, rename or delete that file unless you first copy it into the Audacity project. See for more information.
- Never move, delete or rename any of the files or folders inside the _data folder.
- Never rename the AUP file or the _data folder.
If you want to rename your project (for example, to save a snapshot at a particular point), use the
Opening an Audacity project
When opening an Audacity project always useor to open the "my_song.aup". Do not attempt to open, import or manipulate any individual AU files.
Audio which was not saved as an Audacity Project will need to be imported using Importing Audio for more information., or by dragging the file in. The Import command is used to import audio data into an already open project, whereas the Open command used on an external audio file either imports the file into the current project if it never contained any other tracks, otherwise imports it into a new project window. See
When importing uncompressed audio files, such as WAV or AIFF, Audacity has an import preference that lets you save disk space and edit the files almost immediately by reading them directly from their original source location, rather than copying them into the project. In that case Audacity will reference the original file directly (but not make any changes to that audio file unless you export over it). If you import the files by reading them directly, you must not at that point rename, move or delete those original source files and must not modify them outside Audacity.
When you first import a file by any means, for example by using Warning dialog is presented explaining the difference between copy-in and read-directly and asking which method should be used for this import. You can opt for Audacity to use your current choice in future and not ask again, but you can change your choice at any time in Import - Export Preferences., or by dragging the file in, the preference is automatically set to "copy in" and a
When a project is saved and the "faster" option has been chosen, Audacity will display a dialog box showing these dependencies and give the option of copying all of the audio data into the project. This makes the project independent of external audio files and makes it safe to delete, move, rename or modify the original audio files if necessary. The Projects Preferences settings can be modified so that Audacity will not ask when saving a project but will always either "never copy" the dependent audio files, or "always copy" them into the project.
At any time it is possible to click on external files.to see if the project depends on any
Import settings: "faster" versus "safer"
There are two settings that determine how Audacity imports a WAV or AIFF file.
- Make a copy of the files before editing (safer): This is the default setting. Audacity copies in the entire audio data of files when importing them.
- Plenty of disk space is available and the time taken to import is not crucial
- You want peace of mind that the project will never depend on other files
- The Audacity project is to be opened on another computer or sent to someone else (if you only want to send an exported audio file to someone else, you don't need to choose "Safer").
- Read the files directly from the original (faster): Audacity uses On-Demand Loading. This imports files much faster by only writing small AUF "summary" files that reference the imported file and so depend on that imported file remaining available. Audio data is only copied in for any parts of the file that you subsequently edit. If you apply an edit to the entire audio of the imported file, Audacity will at that point copy the entire audio data in, so providing you do not undo that edit of the entire audio, the project will henceforward no longer depend on the imported file.
Note that if you overwrite a read-directly WAV or AIFF file by exporting to the same file name and location, Audacity renames the imported file with a suffix containing "-old" and a number, then this "-old" file becomes the dependent file for the project. Do not delete "-old" file(s) until you are happy with the exported file and no longer require the Audacity project, or unless you have first edited the entire audio.
|Do not choose the "Faster" option unless you completely understand the implications. If you move, rename or delete the imported file, the project data may be lost.|
Saving an Audacity Project
There are two main commands for saving projects:
- saves a standard project as an AUP project file (a file with ".aup" after its name) and a _data folder containing the actual audio. If the project does not have any unsaved changes (for example, if the project is empty or you just saved it), "Save Project" will be grayed out.
- similarly saves a standard project as an AUP file and _data folder. It is for saving an empty project or to save an existing Project to a new name to make a copy of the project in its current state then continue working on that copy.
Saving a project lets you save unfinished work and re-open it later in Audacity exactly as it was, with all edits and recorded/imported tracks preserved. Note carefully that the Undo history is not saved with the project and so the project history starts afresh when you re-open the project later.
As with saving any type of file, certain characters cannot be used in the name of the AUP file if they are reserved for the operating system. See our information on forbidden characters.
|A saved Audacity Project can only be opened and used by Audacity if you want an audio file that will play on your music player or to burn a CD then you will need to Export one.|
When saving an Audacity project it is normally easiest to use the CTRL + S (or COMMAND + S on Mac). If you save a project again having made further changes to it, "Save Project" then updates the AUP file and _data folder silently without bothering you with prompts.command, which has a default shortcut of
Saving copies of projects
"Save Project As" is the safe and recommended way to make a copy of a project with a new name or location. This could serve either as a single backup copy of the project, or as one of several incremental copies of the project in the state it had at a particular date and time. If you "Save Project As" with a new name, the project window then displays the project name you just "saved as". The project window displaying the project as previously named is closed in its last saved state, but can be reopened as required.
Some benefits of saving a project:
- No need to re-import or re-record files
- Fast loading, even of multiple long tracks
- Audio data is always preserved in lossless quality. This is useful if you have already exported to a lossy audio format like MP3 but decide to edit the project further. Editing and re-exporting the project saves the additional quality loss of re-editing the previously exported MP3.
Saving a compressed copy of Project
If you need to save space (for example to send a project over the internet) you can save a compressed version of your project by using.
Exporting audio files
To make an audio file for playing on your music player, burning CDs or for use in other programs you must use one of the Export audio commands as Audacity projects can only be opened and used by Audacity; neither the .aup project file or the .au files in the _data folder can be used in other programs or devices.
Use Export Audio dialog where you can select from various standard audio file formats according to your purpose.which brings you to the
The two most common formats which can be played almost anywhere are:
- WAV: a lossless very high quality, but large, format ideal for burning to Audio CDs. WAV files will open, play and can be edited on Windows, Mac OS/X and Linux computers.
- MP3: a lossy lesser quality format but small enough to send over the Internet or store on portable devices. Typically an MP3 file can be around ten time smaller than the equivalent WAV. They will also open and play on Windows, Mac OS/X and Linux computers. MP3s are good for listening and sending or website posting but are poor for editing and production.
To export as MP3, don't forget to add the LAME MP3 library to your computer. Add the FFmpeg library to your computer to export to AAC or WMA which are used in iTunes and Windows Media Player respectively.
Moving, renaming or sending an Audacity project
Moving or renaming Audacity projects can be tricky due to their complex structure as described above. Any project can be moved on the same computer, or renamed, by making a copy of the project with thecommand.
|Sending somebody just an AUP file does not send them an Audacity project - to do that you would need to send the folder with the data files too.|
For a simple single track project (that does not have gain or pan settings, or use an envelope to adjust the volume) one possible solution is to not to move the project. Instead, use thecommand to export a WAV file. This WAV file can then be copied to another computer, then the command can be used to load the WAV file into an Audacity project. Alternatively the WAV file can be sent by email or via a file sharing website to someone else who can import it into an Audacity project on their computer.
For a project that has multiple tracks, or a single-track project that has gain or pan settings or uses an envelope to adjust the volume of the track, the entire project will need to be moved. To do that it is necessary to move the AUP file <my_project_name>.AUP and the _data folder <my_project_name>_data either to a second computer or to a different location on the existing computer. Ensure that the .aup file and _data folder remain together in the same folder.
As noted above, any project can be moved to a different location on the same computer using thecommand.
If you want to move a project to a different computer the project must not depend on external audio files. Use thecommand to check whether the project depends on any external files. If it does, the dialog box will give you the option to make a copy of those files within the project.
It can be difficult to email complex projects to other users; to do so it is necessary to zip up the entire project structure and email or share that zip file. The reason for zipping up the project is to make sure the project structure remains intact during the transfer, not to save space. A zip archive of a project is likely to be about 10% smaller than the unzipped project.
External files have absolute references in the AUP file and thus it is difficult to move an Audacity project that depends on external files to another computer but relatively easy to move a project to a different location on the same computer.
Backing up Audacity projects
Regular backups should if possible be made to one or two devices other than the device the current project is stored on, as computer hard drives can fail, destroying all data. For example, backups could be made to another internal drive on the computer, or ideally to an external USB drive or uploaded to an online (cloud) storage service.
For advice on backing up Audacity projects please see this FAQ.
Deleting an Audacity project
There is no File > Delete Project command in Audacity; therefore to delete a project to free up disk space it is necessary to make the deletion manually. You will need to delete both the AUP file and its associated, identically named _data folder.
Note that this will not remove the listing of your project under. After deleting the project you can choose the AUP entry for that project in the Recent Files list in order to remove the entry.
Autosave and Recovery
Audacity has an automatic saving system running in the background so as to provide efficient project recovery in the event of a crash or power loss. As soon as you open a project window and add or change the window contents, Audacity writes a temporary reference file for the project called an autosave file. This file is stored in the "AutoSave" folder inside Audacity's folder for application data.
The autosave file is structured identically to a saved .aup project file, but exists at any time there are unsaved changes to a project, namely:
- If you have not yet saved an .aup project file (in which case the audio data itself is still stored in Audacity's temporary directory)
- If you have already saved an .aup project file but made subsequent changes (in this case, the audio data itself is stored and always remains in the _data folder that has the same name and location as the .aup file).
Changes to the audio data are always autosaved. The autosave file is also modified to reflect positional changes, such as moving the cursor or selection region or changing the track height, although such changes are not stored in the project's Undo History.
If a crash or power loss does occur, Audacity when restarted will display the Automatic Crash Recovery dialog. A list is provided of projects that can be recovered, one project for each window that had unsaved changes. Be sure to save the project before closing it, or all the unsaved changes will be lost.
Disk space usage
This can be particularly important if you are editing a large project.
Audacity references the original audio material until you actually perform some kind of edit on it, such as cutting a piece away or using any effect on it. So if you a selection, this doesn't actually increase the number of .au files in the _data folder, and doesn't increase disk space usage. for example does increase the number of .au files, but this is so these files can be retained separately on the Audacity clipboard for .
Once you perform an edit, the original unchanged audio is retained, along with the changed audio. This is so you can useand to try out edits and undo them if they don't sound as you wanted.
If you edit just a small selection in a track, only that small selection of changed data is written to disk. Nonetheless, this still represents a doubling of disk space usage for that selection, and a further edit on that selection (unless you first undo the previous edit) represents a quadrupling of disk usage. For example, a five minute stereo recording at default quality settings takes 100 MB of space. If you edit the whole length of that recording, disk space usage will increase to 200 MB.
If disk space is a problem while working on a project, you can useto discard Undo levels and reclaim disk space. Note that once you close the project by using or exiting Audacity, the audio data needed for Undo/Redo is discarded, so as to make project storage as economical as possible.
Any audio data placed on the Audacity clipboard by Cut or Copy is however retained until you exit Audacity itself.